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Leonard vienna porcelain marks

It was founded in and continued until The firm was Europe's second-oldest porcelain factory after Meissen porcelainand for 25 years the two remained the only European producers.

Initially it was a private enterprise, founded by Claude du Paquier[1] an official of the Viennese Imperial court, but in it was rescued from financial difficulties when bought by the Empress Maria Theresaand thereafter remained an asset of the emperors.

leonard vienna porcelain marks

The wares from the earlier, private period before are the most sought-after today, if only because production was lower and so the pieces are much more rare. These are often called Du Paquier porcelain from the Du Paquier factory.

Wares were used as diplomatic gifts by the emperors, and exports to Turkey were significant. The history of the manufactory is often divided by German writers into five periods. The first period, used by all sources, was under its founder and first director du Paquier, who was given a monopoly for 25 years.

leonard vienna porcelain marks

This is therefore known as the "Du Paquier period", and many sources talk of "Du Paquier porcelain" and the "Du Paquier factory", [5] usually with a capital "D", although his actual name has a small "d".

While Meissen and most later German factories were owned by the local ruler, and usually heavily funded, du Pacquier received only permission to manufacture, and many orders for wares, from the emperor, and the factory seems always to have been under-capitalized in his time.

This situation lasted from —, when the monopoly expired and the financial difficulties apparently came to a head; the empress intervened by buying the factory, [6] which was then renamed as the "Imperial State Manufactory Vienna". The second period is the " Plastic period" —the third is the "Sorgenthal period", [7] or "Painterly period" Malerische Periode of —, then the " Biedermeier period" — and finally the "Late Biedermeier period" — By the last quarter of the 18th century, as many aspieces annually were exported to the Ottoman Empire ; these were typically brightly coloured, but less finely painted than those for European markets.

The factory received a boost from the Congress of Vienna inin the course of which it was visited by a number of monarchs and other leading figures, although King George IV of the United Kingdom never went to Vienna and so missed the service he would have been presented with. The name was revived in with the foundation of the Vienna Porcelain Manufactory Augarten. Wares were hard-paste porcelainand always of very high quality. Like most factories in the German-speaking world, it was founded with expertise provided by key workers enticed from Meissen porcelainwho brought the secrets of the Meissen materials and techniques with them, and the wares remained broadly similar to those made there, although the body was not exactly the same, and gradually improved.

Initially mostly table wares were produced, often with a slightly blueish tinge to the plain body. European flowers as opposed to East Asian ones copied from imports were used in decoration from aroundbefore Meissen, and subsequently very widely used across European factories. As at Meissen, chinoiserie decoration was also often used, as were hunting and battle scenes. The Du Paquier period began the tradition of strong and varied colours, which was to remain a strength of Vienna porcelain.For easy reference and as a quick guide to the possible attribution of your latest porcelain collectible or pottery marks.

The marks listed below are grouped as far as was possible in a logical order, with similar signs, graphics, shapes, etc grouped together.

Vienna porcelain

We have tried to include as many ceramics and pottery marks as possible, but also tried to avoid too much duplication. If we have additional information on the pottery mark or piece, you can click the image to open that section. Including various marks from a range of British, American, and European pottery and porcelain manufacturers.

A quick view of some samples of the diverse range of Royal Doulton Marks. Click an image to open the full Doulton marks section.

Click an image to open the full Moorcroft Marks Section. Click an image to open the full Royal Worcester section. Home Latest Updates Forum Valuations.

How to Identify Fake Royal Vienna Porcelain Marks

Your guide to antique pottery marks, porcelain marks and china marks. Scan the index of this pottery marks identification guide to help you identify your pottery or porcelain. You can also try searching for the potter in the search box above.It was founded in and continued until The firm was Europe's second-oldest porcelain factory after Meissen porcelainand for 25 years the two remained the only European producers. Initially it was a private enterprise, founded by Claude du Paquier[1] an official of the Viennese Imperial court, but in it was rescued from financial difficulties when bought by the Empress Maria Theresaand thereafter remained an asset of the emperors.

The wares from the earlier, private period before are the most sought-after today, if only because production was lower and so the pieces are much more rare. These are often called Du Paquier porcelain from the Du Paquier factory. Wares were used as diplomatic gifts by the emperors, and exports to Turkey were significant.

The history of the manufactory is often divided by German writers into five periods. The first period, used by all sources, was under its founder and first director du Paquier, who was given a monopoly for 25 years.

This is therefore known as the "Du Paquier period", and many sources talk of "Du Paquier porcelain" and the "Du Paquier factory", [5] usually with a capital "D", although his actual name has a small "d". While Meissen and most later German factories were owned by the local ruler, and usually heavily funded, du Pacquier received only permission to manufacture, and many orders for wares, from the emperor, and the factory seems always to have been under-capitalized in his time.

This situation lasted from —, when the monopoly expired and the financial difficulties apparently came to a head; the empress intervened by buying the factory, [6] which was then renamed as the "Imperial State Manufactory Vienna". The second period is the " Plastic period" —the third is the "Sorgenthal period", [7] or "Painterly period" Malerische Periode of —, then the " Biedermeier period" — and finally the "Late Biedermeier period" — By the last quarter of the 18th century, as many aspieces annually were exported to the Ottoman Empire ; these were typically brightly coloured, but less finely painted than those for European markets.

The factory received a boost from the Congress of Vienna inin the course of which it was visited by a number of monarchs and other leading figures, although King George IV of the United Kingdom never went to Vienna and so missed the service he would have been presented with. The name was revived in with the foundation of the Vienna Porcelain Manufactory Augarten. Wares were hard-paste porcelainand always of very high quality. Like most factories in the German-speaking world, it was founded with expertise provided by key workers enticed from Meissen porcelainwho brought the secrets of the Meissen materials and techniques with them, and the wares remained broadly similar to those made there, although the body was not exactly the same, and gradually improved.

Vienna Porcelain Marks

Initially mostly table wares were produced, often with a slightly blueish tinge to the plain body. European flowers as opposed to East Asian ones copied from imports were used in decoration from aroundbefore Meissen, and subsequently very widely used across European factories. As at Meissen, chinoiserie decoration was also often used, as were hunting and battle scenes. The Du Paquier period began the tradition of strong and varied colours, which was to remain a strength of Vienna porcelain.

There was heavy use of openwork in some pieces. A very common style, called Laub- und Bandelwerk in German, has intricate painted borders or backgrounds of trellisbandworkpalmettes and other very formalized plant motifs. Knobs and handles are often formed as animals, and sometimes people. Like other factories in major capitals, including Meissen, Capodimonte and Buen Retiro in MadridVienna produced a few porcelain rooms for palaces, the only surviving example of which is now installed in the Museum of Applied Arts, Vienna.

However, the porcelain here does not cover all the wall space that is not window or mirror, as in other examples, but is a border around the wall-spaces, with matching plaques on the furniture.

Pottery Marks Identification Guide & Index

Chief modellers included Johann Joseph Niedermeyer, working from toand Anton Grassi from to[20] who was sent to study classical remains in Rome for several months in Like Meissen and other German factories, some Vienna pieces were decorated by outside painters, or Hausmalers. Bright colours, extensive use of gold, and very detailed painting characterize the style, and set the typical Vienna style for decades to come.

Another Neoclassical fashion in porcelain which Vienna embraced was the biscuit porcelain figure. Sorgenthal employed painters known in other media: Anton Kothgasser — was also a painter of glass, and Moritz Michael Daffinger —the son of a painter for the factory, worked for them untilbefore concentrating on painting portrait miniatures.

The quality of wares was in decline by the late s, when unsuccessful attempts began to revive the factory by producing cheaper wares from lower-quality materials, decorators paid on pieceworkand some use of printed transfer. All were counter-productive, and production continued to reduce, although some high-quality pieces were produced until the end.

Some moulds and undecorated fired "blanks" were bought by other factories, including Herendand added to the considerable volume of imitations, "replicas" and downright forgeries that have copied Vienna porcelain.

Other genuine Vienna pieces had their decoration scraped off to be repainted in a more elaborate style. No marks were used before the Imperial takeover inafter which a "beehive-shaped shield" was used, either in blue or impressed. In the impressed date mark was introduced, beginning with "83", then running from "" for We have a large and magnificent antique porcelain centerpiece bowl that bears the authentic trade mark of P.

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Leonard, Vienna, Austria. Leonard was a New York importer well known for importing high quality Bohemian, Austrian and French porcelain during the last quarter of the 19th century.

It appears that the P. Leonard firm went bankrupt sometime between and - - numerous reports provide conflicting information. This stunning antique porcelain centerpiece bowl, which is signed by the artist, has a background of soft fall shades, with a lovely foreground of fall leaves, branches and currants.

The feet and rim of the antique porcelain bowl are scalloped, and the bowl has high, arcing handles on either end. The rim and handles of the antique porcelain bowl are gilded, and there is some minor gold loss visible on the handles. The antique porcelain centerpiece bowl is in perfect condition, with no chips, cracks, abrasions, crackling or discoloring. The interior of the antique porcelain bowl is spotlessly clean, with a slight lustre finish.

Frankly, we suspect that the wear to the gold handles occurred over time when the bowl was taken from its shelf to dust. This antique porcelain bowl, used as a centerpiece, would amp up the wattage of any table for any occasion, and would be an essential addition to any porcelain collection. Whether this is ultimately acquired for or by a collector, or just because it is beautiful, this antique porcelain centerpiece bowl will lend grace and elegance to its surroundings!

Product Description And Additional Pictures We have a large and magnificent antique porcelain centerpiece bowl that bears the authentic trade mark of P.Somewhere along the line, the mark was viewed upside down and a beehive was born.

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So should you describe the mark as a beehive and call this porcelain Royal Vienna? The mark does look much more like a beehive than a shield to the average person, but correct is correct, right? Well, not if you want to sell a piece through an ad or in the online marketplace.

leonard vienna porcelain marks

The term that rules will always be what collectors recognize, especially when it comes to buying and selling. In this case, people associate Royal Vienna with what they reference as the beehive mark.

So what should you do to accurately describe a piece? Being correct in this realm goes beyond understanding the mark. As marks4antiques. This sneaky duo shared the porcelain secret with Claude Innocentius Du Paquier and he began utilizing it in to make porcelain comparable to that of his German neighbors. ByPaquier ran into financial trouble and sold his porcelain manufacturing business to the royal family in Austria.

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The Imperial and Royal Porcelain Manufactory of Vienna became the most important porcelain manufacturer in the area and continued to make fine hand-decorated porcelain wares until Those older shield-marked pieces from the Imperial and Royal Porcelain Manufactory of Vienna can be quite expensive now, if you can find them.

Lots of beehive pieces have been produced in the recent past and imported into the American marketplace as well. Old pieces will have the beehive mark under the glaze. Read More.Sooner or later you are bound to bump into one of the mark versions shown below.

What should rise your suspicion is the plain fact that no reference book actually shows any of these marks, even those specialized on Austrian ceramics. Hence it is often very easy to prove that information given in some auction description is simply made up. According to a few German antiques dealers, some of these marks came up during the mid- to late s and are well known as reproductions. Depending on source, these items are said to have originated in Korea or Taiwan; thanks to Bill Bennett I have a nice picture of a vase bottom that has been scraped open to show the material used: his item was simply made from dirty leftover stuff and then whitewashed to create a clean surface.

For some time a larger potion of these marks was claimed to have belonged to one certain relatively badly documented manufacturer, which of course never used any of the marks shown here and only produced plates and dishes no vases, figures or other items. Contact Me. Member Log In. Factory Index. Historical Notes. Book Errata. Essay Collection. Registration Marks, British. Registration Marks, German. Misrepresented 1 Marks. Misrepresented 2 Groups. Unidentified 1 Marks.

Unidentified 2 Groups. Lower Saxony. North-Rhine Westphalia. Saar Basin. Manufacturer Links. Other Links. Image Over the years I have seen so many versions and on so many lovely pieces, it is hard to keep those creeping doubts from screaming at you: Fake!!

So… I did a lot of research and decided to share what I know in the hopes of keeping at least some people sane…. Yet, in our research, we have often found that there are several meanings attached. However, Royal Vienna was not their official name.

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However, it should be pointed out that this term is also being used by others to refer to the style of certain items, not necessarily their origin or maker. However, this is exactly where more doubts creep in… There are so many copies and imitations of the beehive mark, it can make your head spin. Not only was this mark forged almost immediately upon the original factory being auctioned off by the King because of financial difficulties, but this mark is also found to be used in several variations even to this day, sometimes by Trading companies or Importers.

A word of caution: many pieces that used a copy or imitation beehive mark are not necessarily of poor quality. In fact, the vast majority of these later Royal Vienna pieces, especially those made ca s — s, are of high workmanship and usually command high prices.

Porcelain and pottery marks - MZ Austria marks

Most were made at reputable Studios and by accomplished Artisans, usually in the Bohemian region of Europe, but also in England, France, Italy etc. Although most ca s — s marks were applied by hand, so some may vary ever so slightly from item to item, there are usually one or two details that help in attributing them accurately, especially with the help of a book or website — for example, see our own marks4antiques. Some of the more recent uses of the beehive mark are applied by stamp, usually in an industrial manner.

These much newer items are sometimes also of good quality. In case it helps, most of the very recent Chinese beehive marks we have seen tend to be a bit more rounded. Check our research guides to help you in identifying and appraising your own collection at marks4antiques.

Royal Vienna porcelain plaque, hand painted neoclassical scene. Royal Vienna porcelain cabinet plate, early 20thC. Royal Vienna Pair of Urns ca - s. Royal Vienna Plate ca s - s.


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